Quantum Colloquium: Electrical contacts between three-dimensional metals and two-dimensional semiconductors
Manish Chhowalla (University of Cambridge, UK)
As the dimensions of semiconducting channels in field effect transistors (FETs) decrease, the contact resistance of metal-semiconductor interface at the source and drain electrodes dominates the performance. Two dimensional (2D) transitional metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) such as molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) have been demonstrated to be excellent semi-conductors for ultra-thin FETs. However, unusually high contact resistance has been observed across the metal-2D TMD interface. We have shown that it is possible to reduce the contact resistance by forming lateral junctions between metallic and semiconducting phases of 2D materials. Recent studies have shown that van der Waals (vdW) contacts formed by graphene on 2D TMDs provide lowest contact resistance. However, vdW contacts between evaporated three-dimensional metal and 2D TMDs have yet to be demonstrated. Here, we report the realization of ultra-clean vdW contacts between 3D metals and single layer MoS2. Using scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) imaging, we show that the 3D metal and 2D MoS2 interface is atomically sharp with no detectable chemical interaction, suggesting van-der-Waals-type bonding between the metal and MoS2. We show that the contact resistance of indium electrodes is ~ 800 Ω-μm - amongst the lowest observed for metal electrodes on MoS2 and is translated into high performance FETs with mobility in excess of 160 cm2-V-s-1 at room temperature without encapsulation. We also demonstrate low contact resistance of 220 Ω-μm on 2D NbS2 and near ideal band offsets, indicative of defect free interfaces, in WS2 and WSe2. I will introduce 2D TMDs and their properties and then describe our efforts on making good contacts on 2D semiconductors.